JOHANNESBURG — The African National Congress, the party that helped liberate black South Africans from white-minority rule but that has become mired in corruption, endured its worst election since taking power after the end of apartheid, according to results released on Friday.

The A.N.C. lost a large black-majority city, Nelson Mandela Bay, for the first time and suffered heavy losses in urban areas, where a growing number of black, middle-class voters turned against the party and the politics of patronage personified by President Jacob Zuma.

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